Seeds are a superior strain seeds of dispersal of plant species over other methods such as fruit or vegetative propagation because of their stored reserve of nutrient material and multicellular structure. They also provide protection to the embryo against adverse conditions of growth and storage. To this end, the seed develops several adaptations to withstand environmental stresses.
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In this study, seeds of the Finola and Futura 75 varieties from certified fields were compared with those harvested in the experimental fields Crodo and Viganella. Seeds of the two varieties were analyzed for the total quantity of saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids, and for the carotenoid and chlorophyll content. The fatty acid profile showed no differences among the samples. However, a significant increase of the ratio carotenoid/chlorophyll in seeds from the field of Viganella was observed. On the protein level, a decrease in the intensity of proteins related to inhibition of germination or maintenance of dormancy was detected in seeds from the field of Viganella.
During seed maturation, the accumulation of storage proteins is regulated by different factors such as chaperones of the HSP70/BiP family and protein disulfide isomerases. The former bind transiently to nascent polypeptides to prevent their misfolding under stress conditions, while the latter catalyzes a thiol-disulfide exchange reaction leading to the formation of proper disulfide bonds in proteins22. An increase of Glutathione-S-transferases and PER1 was also found in the seeds from the field of Viganella. These enzymes are involved in the detoxification of ROS and maintain redox homeostasis of the cell23.